Topics will include:

Hostile Reconnaissance Indicators

Lone Wolf Behaviour

Suicide Bomber Intervention

Recognising Mental Health Disorders

Group Offenders

Sexually Deviant Behaviour in Public

Crowd Dynamics

Non-Racial Profiling Techniques

Addressing Religious & Ethnic Concerns

Halo Effect & Stereotyping

Spotlight Effect & Paranoia

Forensic Linguistics

Questioning Styles

Intelligent CCTV

Voice, Temperature and Gait Analysis

Physiological Stress Indicators

Training to Detect

Behavioural Detection Officer Deployment

Communicating Concerns

Court-siding & Fixated Threats

Online Behavioural Analytics

Insider Threat Identification

Case Studies

Mall of America Tour

Day One: Tuesday 21st May 2019

09.00   Chairman’s Opening Address

09.10   Welcome to Mall of America

09.20  Keynote 1: Federal Bureau of Investigation

As Behavioural Analysis 2019 kicks off in the United States, the host nation’s lead federal agency for criminal investigations presents its overview of how behavioural analysis techniques can enhance security at the sites we visit.

Karie Gibson, Federal Bureau of Investigation, USA


Session Theme: Behavioural Analysis in the Spotlight

Moderator: Philip Baum

09.45  Perspective 1: Understanding the Strengths and Weaknesses of Behaviour Detection: past failures and future potential 

Those responsible for the security of large, busy, crowded spaces are increasingly looking at employing behaviour detection methods as part of a range of security practices and processes. The term ‘behaviour detection’ is a term widely used to describe a variety of approaches that assume that individuals with hostile intent can be identified via overt, observable, behavioural cues. Providers of behaviour detection capabilities purport that security staff (and others, including the public) can be taught to detect these cues and as such identify individuals posing a threat to security. If this is the case then behaviour detection may be an effective tool that can prevent hostile acts in large crowded spaces. However, behaviour detection as a security practice has been contested by some, despite having an obvious appeal for security providers. In contrast, others suggest that the basis for behaviour detection is grounded in science, and use this to persuade venue owners and operators to include it as part of a layered approach to security. This presentation will investigate the science behind behaviour detection and explore where evidence for its effectiveness does and does not exist. Where, when, why and how behaviour detection can best be employed to prevent a hostile attack will be explored, and recommendations regarding where further research and evidence is required will also be highlighted.

Dr Sarah Knight, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, UK

10.15  Academic Paper 1: Perceptions Uncovered: the science of non-verbal communication, more than 60 years of research for security practitioners 

Behavioural analysis today remains, in the security world, reliant on various human factors. We, as humans, have to consider how we are perceived and how we perceive others. Research on nonverbal communication conducted for the past 60 years by researchers from all over the world working in various fields of research (e.g., psychology, communication, criminology, sociology, etc.) has addressed this issue. We look at this from the perspective of the culprit and the screener. How does the criminal’s behaviour influence the security operative’s perception of their honesty and why is science important to prevent a guilty person from being considered innocent, and vice-versa?

Vincent Denault, Co-director, Centre for Studies in Nonverbal Communication Sciences and Lecturer, Department of Communication, Université de Montréal, Canada


10:45       Coffee & Networking


11.15   Academic Paper 2: Myth-busting: dispelling fake news

We’ve seen the movies and read the headlines but, in terms of preventative security measures (as opposed to post-incident arrest and interrogation) where does reality end and wishful thinking begin? Is there scientific proof that microexpressions leak guilt; that our directional gaze indicates whether we are constructing answers or remembering facts; that synergology is scientifically validated; or that our umms and errs signify anything of security significance?

Louise Jupe, Portsmouth University, UK


 Session Theme: Industry Experience

Moderator: Michael Rozin

11.40  Behavioural Analysis at the Coalface

How have different industries gone about utilising behavioural analysis techniques to protect their patrons and infrastructure? What are the lessons learned that impact current deployment and staff recruitment and training?

  • 11.45-12.05 Operational Angle 1: Sports Stadium Security

Billy Langenstein, Director Security Services and Investigation, National Football League (NFL), USA

  • 12.05-12.25 Operational Angle 2: Securing Places of Worship

Michael Masters, Secure Community Network, USA

  • 12.25-12.45 Operational Angle 3: Hotel Security

Mark Walker, Senior Manager, Global Security Training, Marriott International Inc., USA

12.45   Panel Q&A


13.00       Lunch & Networking


Session Theme: Xenophobia

Moderator: Michael Rozin

14.00  Perspective 2: Xenophobia & Extremist Ideology: an analysis of recent attacks and the behaviours of the perpetrators

In recent years our security focus has, rightly or wrongly, been directed at the Islamist threat. Whilst the scale of jihadist acts has often been dramatic, in terms of preparation, sophistication and resulting casualty figures (as demonstrated on 9/11), there has also
been a dramatic increase in the number of attacks and violence, specifically fatalities, perpetrated by those who embrace right wing extremist ideology.  Those that choose to translate their extremist belief and hatred, dominated by anti-Semitic, xenophobic and anti-Muslim beliefs into action, threaten our common values as a society. From Pittsburgh to Christchurch, the impact of this threat is very real. What do we know about the core themes of their ideology and what behaviours might help us identify them in advance of their actions, be it from their online or real-world activity?

Joanna Mendelson, Senior Investigative Researcher & Director of Special Projects, Center on Extremism, Anti-Defamation League, USA

14.30  Perspective 3: Pittsburgh: a reflection on the ‘Tree of Life’ attack of October 2018

Michael Masters, National Director & CEO, Secure Community Network, USA


Session Theme: Questioning Behavioural Analysis

Moderator: Philip Baum

14.45  Question Time

We put behavioural analysis itself in the spotlight and ask a select group of practitioners, security consultants and academics to answer our delegates concerns. Whether it’s about procedures, regulations, technologies or responsibilities, conference participants will be encouraged to submit questions upon registration or upon their arrival at the conference venue.

  • Louise Jupe, Portsmouth University, UK
  • Craig Donald, Adjunct Associate Professor at Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia
  • Michael Rozin, USA
  • Nina Brooks, Airports Council International, Canada
  • Will Bernhjelm, Director of Security, Mall of America USA


15.30       Afternoon Tea & Networking


16:00 Operational Angle 4: The Mall of America: our hosts perspective

Delegates have only been able to gather at Mall of America due to the Mall’s management buy-in to security. On day three there will be an opportunity to tour the site, but this presentation will focus on the training afforded security personnel, the investment in people and technology and management’s take on the achieving security without having a negative impact on guest experience.

Ashly Helser, Mall of America, USA


Session Theme: Suicidal Terrorism

Moderator: Neville Hay

16.20  Perspective 4: Suicide Bomber Intervention: when time is not on your side

The ability to respond to a potential suicide bomber in a timely manner demands on the approach of senior management to security. Adopt a tick-box approach and demand that staff continuously report concerns upward through a never-ending chain and one might be able to prevent petty crime and people with mental health issues. Being able to respond to a suicide bomber demands that all engaged in security are able, when the need arises, to take unilateral action. That action requires management buy-in in terms of drafting the requisite operational protocols and countermeasures and supporting staff when they make the decision to act.

Ivor Terret, Enablement Advisors, USA

16:50  Frontline Staff Identifying the Threat 1: Stade de France

On 13 November 2015, a wave of terrorist attacks hit Paris, with most of the casualties being at the Bataclan concert venue. The Stade de France, where France were playing Germany, was also an intended, but one of the suicide bombers was prevented from entering due to the actions of a vigilant security agent. The agent provides his perspective.


17.15  Close of Day One

Day Two: Wednesday 22nd May 2019

09.00  Chairman’s Opening Comments


Session Theme: Aviation Security

Moderator: Nina Brooks

09.05   Operational Angle 5: Behavioural Analysis within the US Transportation System

No industry has debated the use of behavioural analysis techniques longer or more extensively than aviation. Whilst immigration and customs controls seem to be able to implement passenger differentiation techniques without being seriously challenged, those engaged in pre-flight checks are expected to treat everybody the same. After the SPOT programme came under extensive criticism, the deployment of behavioural detection officers was reduced. That does not mean, however, that behavioural analysis protocols are not in use at American airports. Where does the US transportation system currently stand on the matter?

Michael Silata, Specialized Screening Program Branch Chief, Transportation Security Administration, USA

09.30   Operational Angle 6: Gatwick Airport: challenges in, and the successes of, implementing behavioural analysis in the UK

As the busiest single runway airport in the world, Gatwick serves over 46 million passengers a year to 228 destinations in 74 countries. Combine that with a dedicated railway station which directly connects to more stations than any other European airport and 34,000 airport staff across 600 companies and it’s no surprise that the airport forms part of the UK’s critical national infrastructure. Over five years ago the airport introduced a permanent full-time behavioural detection team. With continued development the programme is now considered by many to be leading best practice in the subject.

Andy Palmer, Border Security Manager, Gatwick Airport, UK

09.55  Operational Angle 7: Israeli Profiling: modifying profiling to respond to new threats

No discussion about the deployment of passenger profiling within aviation is complete without an Israeli perspective! Often viewed as being the gold standard in behavioural analysis, it is discussed extensively after each attack elsewhere in the world. If it has successful secured the Israeli transportation industry for half a century, so why don’t we use their system everywhere? Passengers numbers, industry growth, commercial concerns and a different calibre of screening employee are the cited excuses. Yet perhaps it is really about mindset and a refusal to adopt tick-box security and simply follow prohibited items lists. The Israeli Airport Authority is, however, also changing its approach to emerging threats.

10.20  Perspective 5: Transportation Screening Personnel: coping with increased cognitive load

Airports are busy places and, unlike any other arena for security deployment, the extent of the regulation in place and rules which have to be followed is extensive. Many of the operating protocols undergo significant change on a relatively regular basis. How do screeners cope with the demands placed on them and remain capable of analysing behaviours effectively whilst complying with the demands to use traditional screening technologies and ensure passenger facilitation is not excessively compromised?

Amir Neeman, Amir Neeman Consulting, USA

10:45  Panel Q&A


11.00       Coffee & Networking


Session Theme: Questioning Techniques & Deception Indicators

Moderator: Louise Jupe

11.35  Academic Paper 3: The Art of Questioning: developing rapport, effective strategies and countering resistance

Asking a single superficial question is unlikely to unmask the terrorist or the criminal. So what questioning techniques can be employed, granted limited time, to reveal negative intent? The paper will examine some of the solutions proffered and highlight the latest research into effective methodologies for eliciting information.

Dr. Christian Meissner, Professor of Psychology, Iowa State University, USA

12.00  Academic Paper 4: New methods for training in deception detection: Advantages of Game-Based Learning

Learning a new task can sometimes be dull, repetitive, and frustrating.  Learners might be embarrassed to demonstrate new skills they have not yet mastered, especially when being evaluated by superiors or when the task is cognitively difficult. They also may be resistant to learning new concepts that they think are unnecessary or mundane. Gamification can make learning both challenging and fun which improves motivation and engagement for learners and also encourages repetition of training sessions through repeated game play. In this talk, Professor Dunbar will share her team’s experiences creating video games and testing their efficacy. The game MACBETH was created for the intelligence community to help train analysts to avoid cognitive bias in their decision-making and the game VERITAS is a deception detection training game. Both games were tested extensively both with large samples of college students and small samples of professionals in their domains.  The results revealed that combined with traditional teaching methods, games improved motivation and engagement from learners and improved retention of skills.

Prof. Norah Dunbar, Department of Communication, University of California Santa Barbara

12.25  Academic Paper 5: Forensic Linguistics: warning signs in speech patterns

Forensic linguistics have long been proven to be an effective tool in post-incident analysis, but to what extent can we utilise forensic linguistic techniques to identify a process of radicalisation, affiliation with a cultic group, or detect deceit in forensic interviews? This paper will outline what we can learn from the language of criminals, and what pitfalls to avoid in order to use linguistic behaviour analysis.

Frédéric Tomas, Univeristé de Paris 8, France

12.50  Panel Q&A


13.00       Lunch & Networking


Session Theme: Sexual Assault & Sexually Deviant Behaviour

Moderator: Philip Baum

14.00  Academic Paper 6: Contextual and Behavioural Risk Factors for Sexual Harassment and Assault in Public Venues

Sexual harassment and assault against guests and employees appear to be relatively prevalent at event venues and in other crowded public places. Mass transportation systems struggle with reports of non-consensual sexual touching; open air festivals and sports events pose a risk for ‘upskirt’ photographs and unwanted sexual contact; and night venues have long struggled to reduce the risk of sexual harassment, sexual assault, and rape that is posed by individuals and groups, who are often under the influence of alcohol. This paper will describe the range of harassing and assaultive behaviours against which venues should guard, describe some characteristics of likely perpetrators, and provide a list of contextual risk factors so that venues can help to crack down on sexual harassment and assault.

Zoë Peterson, Director of the Sexual Assault Research Initiative, Kinsey Institute, USA


Session Theme: Mental Health

Moderator: Philip Baum

14:30  Academic Paper 7: Behavioural Indicators of Mental Health Issues

With so much media focus on the terrorist threat, we must not allow ourselves to overlook the threat posed by those facing mental health issues. Furthermore, as mental illness is increasing at disturbing rates, we must better prepare ourselves to protect ourselves against actions that might be taken by an ill person either against others or against themselves. But what behaviours should we be looking for? The aviation industry, for obvious reasons, has taken the lead in developing programmes to ensure its employees are mentally well enough to fly, but what lessons can other industries learn from aviation and what, even as individuals, can we all do to identify those who may be a danger to themselves and/or others.

Karina Mesarosova, Aviation Psychologist and Managing Partner KM Flight Research & Training, Slovenia & Adjunct Professor at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, USA

14:55  Operational Angle 8: Suicide Intervention: City of Malmo

With people attempting suicide in public places – jumping from balconies in shopping malls and airports, leaping in front of trains, suicide by cop and even self-immolation as an act of protest – how can the local authorities best intervene?

Stefan Landenberg, City of Malmö, Sweden


15.30       Afternoon Tea & Networking


Session Theme: The Counterargument

Moderator: Philip Baum

15.50  Discussion: Profiling and the Threat to Civil Liberties

The deployment of behavioural analysis may result in racial profiling. We all have stereotypical images of criminals and certain groups are, therefore, more likely and unjustly to be targeted than others. We’ll debate the pros and cons of behavioural profiling from a civil liberties perspective.

Hugh Handeyside, Senior Staff Attorney, American Civil Liberties Union, USA

Session Theme: Human Trafficking & Flight Attendant Role in Aviation Security

Moderator: Philip Baum

16.30  Operational Angle 9: Human Trafficking; flight attendants observing behaviour

The issue of human trafficking is gaining traction within the aviation and hospitality industries. In 2018, IATA started promoting its #eyesopen campaign internationally, encouraging airlines to play their part in the identification of trafficked persons and their traffickers. Yet for many years now, in the US, a group of flight attendants have been providing training to the aviation community and have had success in saving many people from lives of forced labour, sexual exploitation, domestic servitude and, possible, being victims of organ harvesting. This is the story of Airline Ambassadors International.

Nancy Rivard, President and Founder, Airline Ambassadors International, USA

17.00  Frontline Staff Identifying the Threat 2: Richard Reid, a.k.a. ‘The Shoebomber’

On 21 December 2001, Richard Reid attempted to check-in for his American Airlines flight from Paris to Antigua, via Miami. He was identified as a possible threat – a selectee passenger – due to suspicious signs identified by the screeners. We are delighted to welcome one of the screeners who interviewed Reid, searched his bag and recommended that Reid not fly. Reid did fly the following day and tried to detonate the IED concealed in his shoes. This is the profiler’s story – an example of behavioural analysis working, yet demonstrating the challenge of management failing to fully buy-in to the classifications reached by profilers.


17.30  Close of Day Two

Day Three: Thursday 23rd May 2019

09.00  Chairman’s Opening Comments

Session Theme: Artificial Intelligence & Technology’s Role in Behavioural Analysis

Moderator: Nina Brooks

09.05  Perspective 6: Extremist Risk Assessment in the Workplace

Many abnormal or suspicious behaviours can be identified long ahead of any attack through the assessment of data and social media interactions. Every organisation employing large numbers of people should now be routinely performing extremist risk assessment to identify insider threats. This presentation looks at the flags and the preferable responses when causes for concern are identified.

Dr. Sagit Yehoshua, Criminologist, Israel

09.30  Academic Paper 8: Automated Credibility Assessment: AI in border security

For the last decade researchers have been investigating automated credibility assessment for airports and border crossings.  The culmination of that worked as led to the AVATAR, a
kiosk-based system with integrated behavioural sensors for screening passengers via an AI embodied conversational agent. The history of the project, results from the field, as well as the science behind the technology will be presented.

Prof. Aaron C. Elkins, Director, Artificial Intelligence Lab, San Diego State University, USA

09.55  Academic Paper 9: CCTV: how can behavioural analysis techniques enhance surveillance operations

CCTV has long been regarded as an essential element of any site’s security infrastructure, but it is a solution which is usually regarded as an evidential tool. This paper will examine how control room operations can be enhanced by incorporating real-time behavioural analysis into the surveillance process for the prediction and detection of crime.

Prof. Craig Donald, Adjunct Associate Professor at Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia

10.20  Panel Q&A


10.35      Coffee & Networking


Session Theme: Mega Events & Crowded Places

Moderator: Michael Rozin

11.10  Perspective 7: School Shootings: on scene behaviour of perpetrators

The insider threat is often perceived to be focussed on employees, but school students may also be regarded as insiders, being known to the faculty and about whom plenty of data is recorded. The US has witnessed more than its fair share of school-based rampages by marauding firearm gunmen. What can we learn from their crime scene behaviours to better protect schools and other public places in the future?

Dr. Michael A. Knox, Nova Southeastern University, Florida, USA

11.35  Academic Paper 10: Crowd Dynamics: challenges in securing crowded events 

Many of the places we aim to protect are outdoor crowded places. This can result – as we witnessed at the country music festival in Las Vegas, on the promenade in Nice, at the market of Berlin, inside the arena in Manchester, at the Bataclan in Paris and on the beaches of Cote d’Ivoire and Tunisia – in mass casualties. What do we know about the behaviour of crowds that might impact our ability to detect threats and, in more practical terms, enable us to respond appropriately when it does all go wrong? Can we manage the mood of the crowd? Can we identify the needle in the haystack?

Andrew Tatrai, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

12.00   Keynote 2: Preparing for Qatar 2022: a role for behavioural analysis? 

Organising any mega-event presents copious security challenges. Football stadium security is often about community policing to address anti-social behaviour, coordination with clubs to identify known hooligans and trouble-makers, and orchestration of effective stewarding to prevent pitch invasions, spot those intoxicated or smoking, and prevent those with a fixation on players or owners from endangering anybody. But a mega-event, such as the FIFA World Cup, brings in additional challenges. Obviously, there are greater concerns about the terrorist threat being realised, but the footprint of the event goes well beyond the stadium and the associated activities, which create a festival-style atmosphere, also need protecting. INTERPOL’s Project STADIA is already heavily involved in helping Qatar prepare to host the 2022 World Cup, and behavioural analysis is likely to be a feature of the programme protecting the stadiums, transportation hubs, hotels and festivities. Three years ahead of the tournament, we offer our delegates an insight into that preparation.

Project STADIA, INTERPOL, France

 Session Theme: Concluding Thoughts

Moderator: Philip Baum

12.30  Perspective 8: Joining the Dots: avoiding the silo mentality

Embracing behavioural analysis as a security solution is all well and good, but ensuring that we reap its benefits is an altogether different challenge. Operating protocols have to be developed, effective communication tools made available and technologies exploited to their best potential. As we draw the conference to a close, we pose the questions which need to be addressed to help create the best operating environment and, thereby, ensure our best chance of success in identifying threats.

Neville Hay, INTERPORT POLICE and Green Light Limited, UK

12.50  Chairman’s Closing Remarks & Close of Conference

Philip Baum, Managing Director, Green Light Ltd & Editor, Aviation Security International, UK & Visiting Professor, Aviation Security, Coventry University, UK


13.00 Conference Proceedings End


Afternoon Optional Programme: Security Tours of Mall of America



Lessons Learned from Recent Terrorist Attacks

Places of Worship: communities protecting themselves – Michael Whine MBE, Community Security Trust, UK
Sporting Events: combatting court-siding and gambling – Andrew Wolfe Murray, Partner, Theseus Partners, UK
Transport Security: human trafficking in focus – Sarah-Jane Prew, Wales Anti-Slavery Leadership Group, UK & Airline Ambassadors International, USA

Fight, Flight or, Perhaps, Freeze: anxiety isn’t always what it seems – Louise Jupe, Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, UK
Case Study: The Impact of Integrating Real-time, Multichannel Behaviour Analysis and Elicitation/Engagement Strategies in
High-stake Contexts – Sorin Losnita, Romanian Intelligence Service, Romania, and Cliff Lansley, EIA Group, UK

Understanding Intuitive Bias – Wim De Neys, CNRS & Université Paris Descartes, France
Good Looking People & the ‘Halo Effect’ – Ran Cohen, SDR® Academy, The Netherlands
Panel Discussion: Religious Sensitivities in Security Decision-Making
Moderated by: Philip Baum
Panel Members: Gurmel Singh, Secretary General, Sikh Council UK
Usama Hasan, Quilliam Foundation
Michael Whine MBE, Community Security Trust, UK

Profile of the Fixated Threat in Action – David James, Theseus Partners, UK
Profile of Group Offenders – Dr Jessica Woodhams, University of Birmingham, UK
Profile of Frotteurs & Sexual Deviants – Dr Lynsey Gozna, University of Leicester, UK
Profile of a Cyber Criminal – Nadine Touzeau, Profiler, net-profiler, France


Stop & Search: reasonable grounds? – Nick Glynn, Senior Programme Officer, Policing & Security Governance, Open Society Initiative for Europe, UK
Case Study: British Transport Police from concept to operation – Rae Jiggins, Polarm International Ltd., UK
Super Recognisers – Mick Neville, Super Recognisers International, UK

Securing The O2 Arena
Paul Williams, Security Operations Manager, The O2, London, UK

Intelligent CCTV: can the camera focus on unusual behaviour? – Simon Moore, Cardiff University, UK
Facial Thermographs: might heat spots identify negative intent? – Reyer Zwiggelaar, Aberystwyth University, UK
Layered Voice Analysis: the way we speak?- Amir Liberman, Nemesysco, Israel

The Art of Questioning: having THE conversation – Charlotte Hudson, Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, UK
Emergency Response: when you think the threat is real – Ofir Malka, CEO SafeZones, Germany
Insider Threat Response: identifying radicalisation in the workplace – Usama Hasan, Quilliam Foundation, UK

Marauding Firearms Attacks: not always by suicidal terrorists – Leeran Gold, Registered Psychologist, Promises Healthcare, Singapore
The Suicidal Terrorist: recruitment & training – Dr. Sagit Yehoshua, Criminologist, Israel
The Proof of the Pudding: attacks against aviation identified by behavioural analysis – Philip Baum, Managing Director, Green Light Ltd., UK

Neville Hay, Brooklyn Associates, UK
Katharine Ng, OneCrew Limited, Hong Kong